Henry, Duke of Gloucester (1640 -1660)
Henry was the third and youngest son of Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria of France. He was also known also as Henry of Oatland. After his father's defeat at the end of the English Civil War, he was captured and brought to London, where he was lodged in the royal apartments in the White Tower of the Tower of London. For a while there was thought among the Republican Army of placing him on the throne, but this idea was rejected in favour of a Republican Commonwealth. He and his sister were permitted to visit their father on the eve of his execution. In 1652 Cromwell released him and allowed him to join his mother and brothers who were living in exile in Paris. There he quarreled with his Catholic mother, and eventually left Paris in order to join the Spanish armies fighting at Dunkirk, distinguishing himself in battle, and gaining a reputation as one of Europe's foremost Protestant soldiers. At the restoration of the monarchy he returned to England as part of Charles' triumphant progress through London in May 1660, and took up residence in Whitehall. He was created Duke of Gloucester and Earl of Cambridge by Charles II, but died suddenly of smallpox shortly afterwards at the age of twenty one.