Henry Benedict, Cardinal York (1725 -1807)
Henry Benedict Maria Clement, Cardinal York, was the younger son of the Old Pretender, James Prince of Wales, son of James II, and Maria Clementina Sobieska. He came to Scotland to support his elder brother, the Young Pretender, in 1745. On his return to Italy in 1746 he was created Bishop of Ostia. and Prefect of St Peter's, Rome, Cardinal in 1747, Archbishop of Corinth in 1759, and Bishop of Tusculum in 1761. On the death of his elder brother in 1788, he assumed the title of Henry IX. He possessed a large library which is mostly still in Rome. The arms on these bindings are made up from separate tools as is the custom in Italy, and so strictly should not be included in this armorial. The cross of an archbishop is often shown behind the arms. After 1788 the crescent, which is sometimes impressed in silver disappears, and the ducal coronet becomes a royal crown. The Cardinal's hat remains throughout, and distinguishes bindings made for Henry IX from those made for presentation to his brother Charles. During the Napoleonic occupation of Italy, Henry had to flee, and was for a time in straightened circumstances, until George III granted him a state pension.