James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales (1688 -1766)
James Francis Edward, known as the Chevalier de St George, or the Old Pretender, was the only son of James II, and Mary of Modena. Born before his father's flight, he was made Prince of Wales, and on his father's death at St Germains in 1701, was proclaimed James III of England and VII of Scotland, but was excluded from the succession by the Act of Settlement of that year. He served in Flanders with the King of France's household troops and distinguished himself at the Battles of Oudenarde and Malplaquet. In August 1715 the Earl of Mar raised the Pretender's standard, and James travelled in disguise to join the rebellion. However things were already desperate for the rebels, and at the beginning of February 1716 he and the Earl of Mar fled to France. Finding it difficult to live near Paris he moved to Avignon and then to Rome. He married, at Madrid, Maria Clementina, daughter of Prince James Sobieski, eldest son of the King of Poland. Their two sons were Charles Edward “Bonnie Prince Charlie”, the Young Pretender, and Henry Benedict, Cardinal York.