Oxford University N/A
Oxford University, though claiming to have been founded by King Alfred, dates from the end of the twelfth century. It is possibly the result of the expulsion of England scholars from the University of Paris in 1165, because of the quarrel between Henry II and Thomas à Becket. Until the beginning of the fifteenth century, the University used the arms of the town of Oxford: Argent an ox gules in base three bars wavy, on its seals. The Chancellor's seal of 1429 however has the open book between three open crowns, Azure three open crowns or being the arms given by medieval heralds to the English martyr saint, St Edmund, King of the East Angles. 1, 2 and 3 would seem to be mentioned in the University accounts under 1654, `To Mr Wilkins goldsmith for engraving the University Armes upon a stampe for Bookes'.