Rupert, Prince, Count Palatine, Duke of Bavaria (1619 -1682)
Prince Rupert was the third son of Frederick V Count Palatine and Elizabeth Queen of Bohemia. He was born in Prague on 17 December 1619, about six weeks after his father's coronation as King of Bohemia. After the Battle of the White Mountain in November 1620, the family fled, first to Berlin and then to Holland. In 1633 he was allowed to accompany the Prince of Orange on campaign and was present at the Siege of Rhynberg. In 1835 he served as a volunteer in the lifeguards of the Prince of Orange. In 1636 he went to England and was well received by Charles I, returning to Holland in 1637 where he was present at the Siege of Breda. In 1638 the Elector Palatine invaded Westphalia where they were defeated by the Austrians, and Rupert was taken prisoner. He was released in 1641. With the outbreak of the Civil War in 1642 he went to England and was made a General of Horse His boldness and activity proved an inspiration to his men, he won many battles but was sometimes a poor strategist, and his defeat at the Battle of Marston Moor and at Naseby spelt defeat for the Royalists. On 24 January 1644, he was created Earl of Holderness and Duke of Cumberland. After his failure to hold Bristol, the King revoked all his appointments. On 25 June 1646 The Parliament ordered Rupert and his brother Maurice to leave the country within ten days. He went to St Germains and joined the French forces on condition of being allowed to return to those of Charles I when circumstances allowed. At the Restoration he returned to England and was welcomed by Charles II, and served the King as General and Admiral on occasion. He was also a considerable amateur artist and may have introduced the art of mezzotint into England and certainly practiced that art himself. He died on 29 November 1682.