Spencer, Charles, 3rd Duke of Marlborough (1706 -1758)
Charles Spencer was the third, but second surviving, son of Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland, and his second wife, Anne, second daughter of John, 1st Duke of Marlborough. He succeeded to his father's honours, 27 November 1729, on the death of his elder brother Robert, 4th Earl of Sunderland. He married, in 1732, Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Thomas, 2nd Baron Trevor, and they had three sons and two daughters. On the death of his maternal aunt, Henrietta Lady Godolphin, suo jure, Duchess of Marlborough, 24 October 1733, he became 3rd Duke of Marlborough. In accordance with the arrangement made at the marriage of his parents, he now handed over the Sunderland property to his younger brother John, father of the 1st Earl Spencer. As he did not inherit Blenheim until the death of Sarah, Dowager Duchess of Marlborough in 1744, in the interval his income was inferior to that of his younger brother. His brother was a favourite with the Dowager, and to please her Charles, unavailingly, took an active part in the opposition to the Court. In 1738, however, he accepted the post of Colonel of the 88th Foot, and became a Lord of the Bedchamber. The next year he was made Colonel of the 3rd Dragoons, and of the 2nd Troop of the Horse Guards. At the battle of Dettingen, 27 June 1743, he commanded a brigade and did good service, but after the battle he and John Dalrymple, 2nd Earl of Stair, resigned their commissions in protest against the conduct of the Hanoverian troops. When the news of the Jacobite Rebellion broke in February 1744, he was one of the first to raise forces in the Hanoverian interest. In January 1744 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He was gazetted Major General in 1745, Lieutenant General in 1747, and in 1749 became Lord Steward of the Household. On 9 January 1755 he became Lord Privy Seal, and on the 21 December, Master General of the Ordnance. In May 1758, Marlborough was given nominal command of an expedition against St Malo, though in fact under the real commander was Lord George Sackville. Though not much was achieved it was not the fault of the commanders, and Marlborough was afterwards despatched to Germany to help Prince Ferdinand in western Germany in his campaign against the French. There, at Munster, having successfully brought his troops to join those of the Germans he contracted dysentery to which he quickly succumbed. His grandson, George, 5th Duke of Marlborough took the additional name of Churchill. Books were sold by George Spencer Churchill, 5th Duke of Marlborough 7 and 22 June 1819 and 24 May 1820 (The White Knight’s Library); and by John Spencer Churchill, 7th Duke 15 June 1870 (duplicates).