Stuart, Charles Edward, the Young Pretender (1720 -1788)
Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Silvester Severino Maria Stuart, commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie, or The Young Pretender was born in Rome where his father, the Old Pretender, James Francis Edward Stuart, son of exiled Stuart King, James II and his second wife Mary of Modena, was given refuge by Pope Clement XI. Charles was the second Jacobite claimaint to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Since the deposition of James II, who had tried to bring England back into the Catholic fold, by the Dutch Protestant William of Orange, the so-called “Jacobite Cause” had striven to return the Stuarts to their rightful place as the rulers of England and Scotland, united in 1707 as Great Britain. Charles is perhaps best known as the instigator of the unsuccessful Jacobite uprising, which ended in defeat at the Battle of Culloden, effectively ending the Jacobite cause. Charles's flight from Scotland after the uprising had rendered him a romantic figure of heroic failure in later representations. In 1766, Charles' father died. Pope Clement XIII had recognised James as King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, but did not give Charles the same recognition. Following numerous affairs, Charles married Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern in 1772. The couple lived first in Rome but, in 1774, moved to Florence where Charles lived under the alias "Count of Albany". The marriage lasted until 1780. Charles died in Rome on 31 January 1788. He was first buried in the Cathedral of Frascati, where his brother Henry Benedict Stuart was bishop. In 1807 Charles's remains were moved to the crypt of Saint Peter's Basilica in the Vatican where they were laid to rest next to those of his brother and his parents.